(no subject)

History 202: American Studies
Final Exam



Directions: Answer the following question using specific facts from the lectures and textbook to support your thesis. The response must be recorded in the Green Book and must be three pages in length. Also, your note card must be submitted with the essay as well. Essays that do not meet the length requirement will be penalized fifteen points.



During the 1930s, the majority of Americans advocated that the country remain isolationist even as the Axis powers perpetrated aggressive actions against nations in the Pacific and Europe. Imagine that it is early 1941 (prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor). Write an editorial to your local newspaper either supporting or denouncing FDR’s interventionist measures. Give three examples to support your argument.

print

http://www.maps.org/publications/2001_zakzanis_1.pdf


Katelyn Fugate
    Human Drug Abuse
    September 9, 2009

    MDMA is a stimulant, often referred to as ecstasy.  Ecstasy produces effects in the body such as increased tactile sensitivity, impaired memory and learning, and liver toxicity.  The article I chose is entitled, “Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA users: a longitudinal investigation.” 
    The study discussed in the article stems from the idea that ecstasy decreases the activity of serotonin in the brain for an extended period of time after usage.  Serotonin has been proven to be related to learning and memory.  Because of this, it is hypothesized that those who use MDMA may be at risk for a great deal of long-term neurotoxin effects. The hippocampus may be particularly affected.  Since the hippocampus is the area of the brain responsible for formulating new memories and learning, it is reasonable to hypothesize that MDMA users may have lasting impairments to their memory.
    The study discussed in the article is performed over a period of one year.  The purpose of the study is to validate or invalidate the idea that MDMA deteriorates memory and learning over time.
    The study utilizes 15 MDMA users as participants.  Participants were required to pass a drug test.  Participants were eliminated due to factors such as dyslexia, pregnancy, eating disorders, and migraines.  Most participants reported unusual sleeping patterns, which is common for MDMA users.  Since sleep deprivation affects cognitive performance, participants were asked to sleep 7-9 hours for 7 nights.  Participants also abstained from drug use for two weeks. 
    Participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Vocabulary and Block Design subtests and the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test.  The study utilized the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test to analyze “immediate and delayed recall.”  Participants were then shown portraits and asked to remember the first and second names of the individuals pictured.  Participants were then asked to recall those names immediately and after a short delay.  Next, a belonging of the participant is commandeered during the study and placed somewhere within the room.  The participant is told to ask for the object before leaving.  An alarm is also set for 20 minutes in the future.  The participant is asked to ask a specific question when the alarm goes off.  Next, ten drawn objects are shown to the participant.  The participant is asked to name those objects.  After a delay, the participant is asked to select the previously viewed items from a group of 20.
    The participant is presented with a story, verbally.  The participant is asked to recall as much of the story as he/she can immediately and after a delay.  The participant is also presented with five faces.  A delay occurs and the participant is asked to choose the original five from a set of ten.  Finally, the experimenter produces a route comprised of five parts in the room.  Immediately, the participant is asked to re-draw the route.
    The study found that continued usage of MDMA is in fact associated with a decrease in several aspects of memory.  Retrospective memory appeared to be particularly affected.  Some tasks did not decline with continued MDMA use.  These included remembering to ask the experimenter a specific question after an alarm, remembering to deliver a message, and remembering to ask for the return of a belonging. 
    One year passed before subjects were tested again.  After one year, test scores either decreased or remained static.  Large declines in scores on the RBMT were found.
    The study fully supported the idea that continued MDMA use is likely to negatively affect the ability to recall first and second names.  It is also likely to affect the immediate ability to recall a route. 
    As with all correlational studies, more research is generally needed before drawing conclusions.  It also must be noted that it is difficult to draw conclusions when working with polypro users.  Prior studies have shown that drug users who had taken ecstasy amongst other drugs expressed impairments in memory.  However, there has been no study comparing drug users who have not taken ecstasy to recreational drug users.  Therefore, the possibility remains that the impairments in memory could be related to other drug use.  Another concern was the self-report of drug consumption by participants.  It is clearly heavily unreliable. 

(no subject)

so scuds had 4 kittens yesterday, but i woke up this morning and there were 6!

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i have 11 cats now. i think i have far surpassed the prereqs for crazy cat lady.

a talk with george

First of all hang out a lot with Hemmingway
Spend some time fighting bulls in Spain
You should go three rounds with Archie Moore and Sugar Ray
It’s so damned scary you won’t mind the pain

Be ringside at the rumble in the jungle
Make friends with Hunter S. and Jackie O.
And when they shoot poor Bobby down, you wrestle Sirhan to the ground
Love your friends and miss them when they go

You should write a book or two and start a magazine
Even if it never makes a dime
You should swing out by your feet above the circus ring
At the very least throw parties all the time

Time and tide will never care
Not so far from here to there
We just go

Enjoy yourself, do the things that matter
Cause there isn’t time and space to do it all
Love the things you try, drink a cocktail wear a tie
Show a little grace if you should fall

Don’t live another day unless you make it count
There’s someone else that you’re supposed to be
There’s something deep inside of you that still wants out
And shame on you if you don’t set it free.

(no subject)

 i'm happy for the first time in awhile. even though the summer has disappeared and i'm too stubborn to revert back to sweaters for these two days of blackberry or dogwood or redbud winter. my mom asks me if i'm wearing socks on the phone and i wiggle my toes and say yes. my feet have never liked wearing socks. i've been skipping classes and burning gas and being too rowdy for my own good. i stayed up late last night listening to boys play banjo and guitar and hand drums. i don't know if i'm confused or what. maybe my head's still a little dizzy from spinning into that wall the other night. you never can tell. but i'm not weary and i'm not scared. my arms are pretty open and my heart's thumping, even though my voice usually can't find a place in the air to settle when you're around. what am i doing? i'm not feeling meek.
and i feel like going out of the way and dropping my friends off at the door in the pouring rain even if i have to park the car two miles away and telling an enraged man in kfc who's yelling at his tiny little kids and jerking them by their arms to go fuck himself and giving the mexican man named salzar that my church adopted money even though i know he's going to spend it on drugs and i'm okay with that if drugs make him happy.
because i just want everyone to be happy.
you were talking about how people always pride themselves in not doing things. not drinking and not cheating on their wives and not smoking pot and not cursing. and people don't DO anything.
world, you are the null hypothesis.
i made my own page of postsecrets.
i'm curious about what every day will bring.